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Browser Support

Confidential Sapphire dApps work in web browsers by wrapping the Ethereum provider such as Metamask to enable signing and encrypting calls and transactions.

Let's begin with the Hardhat boilerplate. As mentioned on their website the boilerplate provides the following:

  • The Solidity contract implementing an ERC-20 token
  • Tests for the entire functionality of the contract
  • A minimal React front-end to interact with the contract using ethers.js

Go ahead and clone the original Hardhat boilerplate repo. Move to the checked out folder and apply the Sapphire-specific changes to hardhat.config.js as described in the quickstart.

Next, install dependencies and deploy the contract on the Testnet with the private key of the account holding some TEST tokens:

pnpm install
pnpm add -D @oasisprotocol/sapphire-paratime
PRIVATE_KEY="0x..." pnpm hardhat run scripts/deploy.js --network sapphire

This will compile the contract and deploy it on the Testnet. In addition to the quickstart steps, the contract address and ABI will also automatically be copied over to the frontend/src/contracts folder so that the frontend can access them!

danger

The contract in the Hardhat boilerplate is ERC-20-compatible and emits the transfer event. If your wish to preserve confidentiality, you can comment out line 66. Read the guide to learn more.

Signing Sapphire Calls and Transactions in Browser

Now, let's explore the frontend of our dApp. Begin by moving into the frontend folder and install dependencies:

pnpm install
pnpm add -D @oasisprotocol/sapphire-paratime

The main frontend logic is stored in frontend/src/components/Dapp.js. Apply the following changes:

frontend/src/components/Dapp.js
--- a/hardhat-boilerplate/frontend/src/components/Dapp.js
+++ b/hardhat-boilerplate/frontend/src/components/Dapp.js
@@ -2,6 +2,7 @@

// We'll use ethers to interact with the Ethereum network and our contract
import { ethers } from "ethers";
+import * as sapphire from '@oasisprotocol/sapphire-paratime';

// We import the contract's artifacts and address here, as we are going to be
// using them with ethers
@@ -22,7 +23,7 @@
// This is the Hardhat Network id that we set in our hardhat.config.js.
// Here's a list of network ids https://docs.metamask.io/guide/ethereum-provider.html#properties
// to use when deploying to other networks.
-const HARDHAT_NETWORK_ID = '1337';
+const HARDHAT_NETWORK_ID = '23295'; // Sapphire Testnet

// This is an error code that indicates that the user canceled a transaction
const ERROR_CODE_TX_REJECTED_BY_USER = 4001;
@@ -225,14 +226,20 @@

async _initializeEthers() {
// We first initialize ethers by creating a provider using window.ethereum
- this._provider = new ethers.providers.Web3Provider(window.ethereum);
+ this._provider = sapphire.wrap(new ethers.providers.Web3Provider(window.ethereum));

- // Then, we initialize the contract using that provider and the token's
- // artifact. You can do this same thing with your contracts.
+ // Then, we initialize two contract instances:
+ // - _token: Used for eth_calls (e.g. balanceOf, name, symbol)
+ // - _tokenWrite: Used for on-chain transactions (e.g. transfer)
this._token = new ethers.Contract(
contractAddress.Token,
TokenArtifact.abi,
- this._provider.getSigner(0)
+ this._provider,
+ );
+ this._tokenWrite = new ethers.Contract(
+ contractAddress.Token,
+ TokenArtifact.abi,
+ sapphire.wrap(new ethers.providers.Web3Provider(window.ethereum).getSigner())
);
}

@@ -294,7 +301,7 @@

// We send the transaction, and save its hash in the Dapp's state. This
// way we can indicate that we are waiting for it to be mined.
- const tx = await this._token.transfer(to, amount);
+ const tx = await this._tokenWrite.transfer(to, amount);
this.setState({ txBeingSent: tx.hash });

// We use .wait() to wait for the transaction to be mined. This method
@@ -360,8 +367,8 @@
return true;
}

- this.setState({
- networkError: 'Please connect Metamask to Localhost:8545'
+ this.setState({
+ networkError: 'Please connect to Sapphire ParaTime Testnet'
});

return false;

Beside the obvious change to the chain ID and wrapping ethers.js objects with the Sapphire wrapper you can notice that we initialized two contract instances:

  • this._token object will be used for unsigned eth calls. This is the Hardhat method of setting from transaction field to all zeros in order to avoid Metamask signature popups. Although the call is unsigned, it is still encrypted with the corresponding runtime key to preserve confidentiality.
  • this._tokenWrite object will be used for signed calls and transactions. The user will be prompted by Metamask for the signature. Both — calls and transactions — will be encrypted.

Trying it

Start the frontend by typing pnpm run start. If all goes well the web server will spin up and your browser should automatically open http://localhost:3000.

Hardhat boilerplate frontend

Go ahead and connect the wallet. If you haven't done it yet, you will have to add the Sapphire ParaTime Testnet network to your Metamask. Once connected, the frontend will make an unsigned call to the balanceOf view and show you the amount of MHTs in your selected Metamask account.

MHT balance of your account

Next, let's transfer some MHTs. Fill in the amount, the address and hit the Transfer button. Metamask will show you the popup to sign and submit the transfer transaction. Once confirmed, Metamask will both sign and encrypt the transaction.

Sign and encrypt the transfetr transaction

Once the transaction is processed, you will get a notification from Metamask and the balance in the dApp will be updated.

tip

If you commented out emit Transfer(...), the transfer of MHTs would have been completely confidential. In the example above, the following transaction was generated. Go ahead and check your transaction on the block explorer too, to make sure no sensitive data was leaked!

Congratulations, you successfully implemented your first truly confidential dApp which runs in the browser and wraps Metamask to both sign and encrypt the transactions!

Should you have any questions or ideas to share, feel free to reach out to us on discord and other social media channels.

Example

You can download a full working example from the Sapphire ParaTime examples repository.